BESA Methods

Methods used in BESA

Key papers for cortical LORETA (BESA Research)

Pascual-Marqui, R.D., Michel, C.M., Lehmann, D., 1994. Low resolution electromagnetic tomography: a new method for localizing electrical activity in the brain. Int. J. Psychophysiol. Off. J. Int. Organ. Psychophysiol. 18, 49–65.

Skrandies, W., 1995. Source localization: Continuing Discussion of the Inverse Problem. ISBET Newsl. 6.

Key papers for age-appropriate template head models (BESA Research)

Richards, J.E., & Xie, W. (2015). Brains for all the ages: Structural neurodevelopment in infants and children from a life-span perspective. In J. Bensen (Ed.), Advances in Child Development and Behavior (Vol 48, Chapter 1, pps 1-52)

Richards, J.E., Sanchez, C., Phillips-Meek, M., & Xie, W. (2015). A database of age-appropriate average MRI templates. Neuroimage,doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.04.055.

Key papers for statistical analysis (BESA Statistics)

Maris, E. and Oostenveld, R. Nonparametric statistical testing of EEG- and MEG-data. J Neurosci Methods. 2007; 164(1): 177-190.

Maris, E. Statistical testing in electrophysiological studies. Psychophysiology. 2012 Apr;49(4):549-65.

Key papers for multiple source analysis

Scherg M, Berg P. New concepts of brain source imaging and localization. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology – Supplement 46:127-37, 1996.

Scherg M, Bast T, Berg P. Multiple source analysis of interictal spikes: goals, requirements, clinical value. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology 16:214-24, 1999.

Scherg M, Picton TW. Separation and identification of event-related potential components by brain electric source analysis. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology ­ Supplement 42:24-37, 1991.

Scherg M, Ebersole JS. Models of brain sources. Brain Topography 5:419-23, 1993.

Scherg M (1990). Fundamentals of dipole source potential analysis. In: Auditory evoked magnetic fields and electric potentials (eds. F. Grandori, M. Hoke and G.L. Romani). Advances in Audiology, Vol. 6. Karger, Basel, pp 40-69.

Scherg M, Von Cramon D. Evoked dipole source potentials of the human auditory cortex. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 65:344-60, 1986.

Scherg M, Von Cramon D. Two bilateral sources of the late AEP as identified by a spatio-temporal dipole model. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 62:32-44, 1985.

Key papers on digital EEG review

Scherg M, Ille N, Bornfleth H, Berg P. Advanced tools for digital EEG review: virtual source montages, whole-head mapping, correlation, phase analysis. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology 19:91-112, 2002.

Scherg M, Bast T, Hoechstetter K, Ille N, Weckesser D, Bornfleth H, Berg P. Brain source montages improve the non-invasive diagnosis in epilepsy. International Congress Series, 1270C:15-19, 2004.

Scherg M, Ebersole JS. Brain source imaging of focal and multifocal epileptiform EEG activity. Neurophysiologie Clinique 24:51-60, 1994.

Assaf BA, Ebersole JS. Visual and quantitative ictal EEG predictors of outcome after temporal lobectomy. Epilepsia 40:52-61, 1999.

Assaf BA, Ebersole JS. Continuous source imaging of scalp ictal rhythms in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 38:1114-23, 1997.

Key paper on BESA source coherence / time-frequency analysis

Hoechstetter K, Bornfleth H, Weckesser D, Ille N, Berg P, Scherg M. BESA source coherence: A new method to study cortical oscillatory coupling. Brain Topography 16: 233-238, 2004.

Key papers on EEG artifact correction

Ille N, Berg P, Scherg M. Artifact correction of the ongoing EEG using spatial filters based on artifact and brain signal topographies. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology 19:113-24, 2002.

Picton TW, van Roon P, Armilio ML, Berg P, Ille N, Scherg M. The correction of ocular artifacts: a topographic perspective. Clinical Neurophysiology 111:53-65, 2000.

Berg P, Scherg M. A multiple source approach to the correction of eye artifacts. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology 90:229-41, 1994.

Litvak V, Komssi S, Scherg M, Hoechstetter K, Classen J, Zaaroor M, Pratt H, Kahkonen S. Artifact correction and source analysis of early electroencephalographic responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex. NeuroImage 37:56–70, 2007.

Lins OG, Picton TW, Berg P, Scherg M. Ocular artifacts in recording EEGs and event-related potentials. II: Source dipoles and source components. Brain Topography 6:65-78, 1993.

Key papers on combined neuroimaging (EEG, MEG, fMRI, PET)

Del Gratta C, Della Penna S, Ferretti A, Franciotti R, Pizzella V, Tartaro A, Torquati K, Bonomo L, Romani GL, Rossini PM. Topographic organization of the human primary and secondary somatosensory cortices: comparison of fMRI and MEG findings. Neuroimage 17:1373-83, 2002.

Bledowski C, Cohen Kadosh K, Wibral M, Rahm B, Bittner RA, Hoechstetter K, Scherg M, Maurer K, Goebel R, Linden DEJ. Mental Chronometry of Working Memory Retrieval: A Combined Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Event-Related Potentials Approach. Journal of Neuroscience 26:821-9, 2006.

Bledowski C, Prvulovic D, Hoechstetter K, Scherg M, Wibral M, Goebel R, Linden DEJ.Localizing P300 Generators in Visual Target and Distractor Processing: A Combined Event-Related Potential and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Journal of Neuroscience 24:9353-60, 2004.

Martinez A, Anllo-Vento L, Sereno MI, Frank LR, Buxton RB, Dubowitz DJ, Wong EC, Hinrichs H, Heinze HJ, Hillyard SA. Involvement of striate and extrastriate visual cortical areas in spatial attention. Nature Neuroscience 2:364-9, 1999.

Strobel A, Debener S, Sorger B, Peters JC, Kranczioch C, Hoechstetter K, Engel AK, Brocke B, Roebel R. Novelty and target processing during an auditory novelty oddball: A simultaneous event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging study. NeuroImage 40:869–883, 2008.

Pouthas V, Garnero L, Ferrandez AM, Renault B. ERPs and PET analysis of time perception: spatial and temporal brain mapping during visual discrimination tasks. Human Brain Mapping 10:49-60, 2000.

Boor R, Jacobs J, Hinzmann A, Bauermann T, Scherg M, Boor S, Vucurevic G, Pfleiderer C, Kutschke G, Stoeter P. Combined spike-related functional MRI and multiple source analysis in the non-invasive spike localization of benign rolandic epilepsy. Clinical Neurophysiology 118:901–909, 2007.

Scherg, M., Linden, D.E.J., Muckli, L., Roth, R., Drüen, K., Ille, N., Linek, S., Zanella, F.E., Singer, W. and Goebel, R. (1999). Combining MEG with fMRI in studies of the human visual system. In: Advances in Biomagnetism (eds. T. Yoshimoto, M. Kotani, H. Karibe and N. Nakasato). Tohoku University Press, Sendai, pp 129-132.

Vanni S, Warnking J, Dojat M, Delon-Martin C, Bullier J, Segebarth C. Sequence of pattern onset responses in the human visual areas: an fMRI constrained VEP source analysis. NeuroImage 21:801-17, 2004.

Other papers on methods

Berg P, Scherg M. A fast method for forward computation of multiple-shell spherical head models. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology 90(1):58-64, 1994.

Berg P, Scherg M. Dipole models of eye movements and blinks. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology 79(1):36-44, 1991 Jul.

Miltner W, Braun C, Johnson R Jr, Simpson GV, Ruchkin DS. A test of brain electrical source analysis (BESA): a simulation study. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology 91:295-310, 1994.

Scherg M, Berg P. Use of prior knowledge in brain electromagnetic source analysis. Brain Topography 4:143-50, 1991.

Scherg M. From EEG source localization to source imaging. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum. 152:29-30, 1994.

Scherg M. Functional imaging and localization of electromagnetic brain activity. Brain Topography 5:103-11, 1992.

Scherg M. Spatio-temporal modelling of early auditory evoked potentials. Revue de Laryngologie Otologie Rhinologie, 105(2 Suppl):163-70, 1984.

Scherg M. Distortion of the middle latency auditory response produced by analog filtering. Scandinavian Audiology 11:57-60, 1982.

Wang Y, Berg P, Scherg M. Common spatial subspace decomposition applied to analysis of brain responses under multiple task conditions: a simulation study. Clinical Neurophysiology 110:604-14, 1999.