BESA Methods

Methods used in BESA

Key papers for cortical LORETA (BESA Research)
Iordanov, T., Bornfleth, H., Wolters, C. H., & ... (2018). LORETA with cortical constraint: Choosing an adequate surface Laplacian operator. Frontiers in …. Retrieved from
Richards, J. E., Sanchez, C., Phillips-Meek, M., & Xie, W. (2016). A database of age-appropriate average MRI templates. NeuroImage, 124(Pt B), 1254–1259.
Skrandies, W. (1995). Source localization: Continuing Discussion of the Inverse Problem. ISBET Newsl., 6.
Pascual-Marqui, R. D., Michel, C. M., & Lehmann, D. (1994). Low resolution electromagnetic tomography: a new method for localizing electrical activity in the brain. Int. J. Psychophysiol. Off. J. Int. Organ. Psychophysiol, 18, 49–65. Retrieved from

Key papers for age-appropriate template head models (BESA Research)

Richards, J. E., Sanchez, C., Phillips-Meek, M., & Xie, W. (2016). A database of age-appropriate average MRI templates. NeuroImage, 124(Pt B), 1254–1259.
Richards, J. E., & Xie, W. (2015). Brains for all the ages: Structural neurodevelopment in infants and children from a life-span perspective. In J. Bensen (Ed.), Advances in Child Development and Behavior (pp. 1–52). Chapter 1, pps: Vol 48. Retrieved from

Key papers for statistical analysis (BESA Statistics)

Maris, E. (2012). Statistical testing in electrophysiological studies. Psychophysiology, 49(4), 549–565. Retrieved from
Maris, E., & Oostenveld, R. (2007). Nonparametric statistical testing of EEG- and MEG-data. J Neurosci Methods, 164(1), 177–190. Retrieved from

Key papers for multiple source analysis

Scherg, M., Bast, T., & Berg, P. (1999). Multiple source analysis of interictal spikes: goals, requirements, clinical value. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 16, 214–224. Retrieved from
Scherg, M., & Berg, P. (1996). New concepts of brain source imaging and localization. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology - Supplement, 46, 127–137.
Scherg, M., & JS, E. (1993). Models of brain sources. Brain Topography, 5, 419–423. Retrieved from
Scherg, M., & TW, P. (1991). Separation and identification of event-related potential components by brain electric source analysis. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology ¬ Supplement, 42, 24–37.
Scherg, M. (1990). Fundamentals of dipole source potential analysis. In M. H. F. Grandori & G. L. Romani (Eds.), Auditory evoked magnetic fields and electric potentials (eds (pp. 40–69). Karger, Basel: Advances in Audiology.
Scherg, M., & Von Cramon, D. (1986). Evoked dipole source potentials of the human auditory cortex. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 65, 344–360. Retrieved from
Scherg, M., & Von Cramon, D. (1985). Two bilateral sources of the late AEP as identified by a spatio-temporal dipole model. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 62, 32–44. Retrieved from

Key papers on digital EEG review

Scherg, M., Bast, T., Hoechstetter, K., Ille, N., Weckesser, D., Bornfleth, H., & Berg, P. (2004). Brain source montages improve the non-invasive diagnosis in epilepsy. International Congress Series, 1270C, 15–19. Retrieved from
Scherg, M., Ille, N., Bornfleth, H., & Berg, P. (2002). Advanced tools for digital EEG review: virtual source montages, whole-head mapping, correlation, phase analysis. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 19, 91–112. Retrieved from
Assaf, B. A., & JS, E. (1999). Visual and quantitative ictal EEG predictors of outcome after temporal lobectomy. Epilepsia, 40, 52–61. Retrieved from
Assaf, B. A., & JS, E. (1997). Continuous source imaging of scalp ictal rhythms in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia, 38, 1114–1123. Retrieved from
Scherg, M., & JS, E. (1994). Brain source imaging of focal and multifocal epileptiform EEG activity. Neurophysiologie Clinique, 24, 51–60. Retrieved from

Key paper on BESA source coherence / time-frequency analysis

Hoechstetter, K., Bornfleth, H., Weckesser, D., Ille, N., Berg, P., & M, S. (2004). Besa source coherence: A new method to study cortical oscillatory coupling. Brain Topography, 16, 233–238. Retrieved from

Key papers on EEG artifact correction

Litvak, V., Komssi, S., Scherg, M., Hoechstetter, K., Classen, J., Zaaroor, M., … S, K. (2007). Artifact correction and source analysis of early electroencephalographic responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex. NeuroImage, 37, 56–70. Retrieved from
Ille, N., Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (2002). Artifact correction of the ongoing EEG using spatial filters based on artifact and brain signal topographies. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 19, 113–124. Retrieved from
Picton, T. W., van Roon, P., Armilio, M. L., Berg, P., Ille, N., & Scherg, M. (2000). The correction of ocular artifacts: a topographic perspective. Clinical Neurophysiology, 111, 53–65. Retrieved from
Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (1994). A multiple source approach to the correction of eye artifacts. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 90, 229–241. Retrieved from
Lins, O. G., Picton, T. W., Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (1993). Ocular artifacts in recording EEGs and event-related potentials II: Source dipoles and source components. Brain Topography, 6, 65–78. Retrieved from

Key papers on combined neuroimaging (EEG, MEG, fMRI, PET)
Strobel, A., Debener, S., Sorger, B., Peters, J. C., Kranczioch, C., Hoechstetter, K., … R, R. (2008). Novelty and target processing during an auditory novelty oddball: A simultaneous event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging study. NeuroImage, 40, 869–883. Retrieved from
Boor, R., Jacobs, J., Hinzmann, A., Bauermann, T., Scherg, M., Boor, S., … Stoeter, P. (2007). Combined spike-related functional MRI and multiple source analysis in the non-invasive spike localization of benign rolandic epilepsy. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118, 901–909. Retrieved from
Bledowski, C., Cohen Kadosh, K., Wibral, M., Rahm, B., Bittner, R. A., Hoechstetter, K., … DEJ, L. (2006). Mental Chronometry of Working Memory Retrieval: A Combined Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Event-Related Potentials Approach. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 821–829. Retrieved from
Vanni, S., Warnking, J., Dojat, M., Delon-Martin, C., Bullier, J., & Segebarth, C. (2004). Sequence of pattern onset responses in the human visual areas: an fMRI constrained VEP source analysis. NeuroImage, 21, 801–817. Retrieved from
Bledowski, C., Prvulovic, D., Hoechstetter, K., Scherg, M., Wibral, R., M. .. Goebel, & DEJ, L. (2004). Localizing P300 Generators in Visual Target and Distractor Processing: A Combined Event-Related Potential and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Journal of Neuroscience, 300, 9353–9360. Retrieved from
Del Gratta, C., Della Penna, S., Ferretti, A., Franciotti, R., Pizzella, V., Tartaro, A., … PM, R. (2002). Topographic organization of the human primary and secondary somatosensory cortices: comparison of fMRI and MEG findings. Neuroimage, 17, 1373–1383. Retrieved from
Pouthas, V., Garnero, L., Ferrandez, A. M., & B, R. (2000). ERPs and PET analysis of time perception: spatial and temporal brain mapping during visual discrimination tasks. Human Brain Mapping, 10, 49–60. Retrieved from<49::AID-HBM10>3.0.CO;2-8
Scherg, M., Linden, D. E. J., Muckli, L., Roth, R., Drüen, K., Ille, N., … Goebel, R. (1999). Combining MEG with fMRI in studies of the human visual system. In Advances in Biomagnetism (eds (pp. 129–132). M. Kotani, H. Karibe and N. Nakasato). Tohoku University Press, Sendai: T. Yoshimoto.
Martinez, A., Anllo-Vento, L., Sereno, M. I., Frank, L. R., Buxton, R. B., Dubowitz, D. J., … SA, H. (1999). Involvement of striate and extrastriate visual cortical areas in spatial attention. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 364–369. Retrieved from

Other papers on methods

Wang, Y., Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (1999). Common spatial subspace decomposition applied to analysis of brain responses under multiple task conditions: a simulation study. Clinical Neurophysiology, 110, 604–614. Retrieved from
Scherg, M. (1994). From EEG source localization to source imaging. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum., 152, 29–30. Retrieved from
Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (1994). A fast method for forward computation of multiple-shell spherical head models. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 90(1), 58–64. Retrieved from
Miltner, W., Braun, C., Jr, J. R., Simpson, G. V., & DS, R. (1994). A test of brain electrical source analysis (BESA): a simulation study. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 91, 295–310. Retrieved from
Scherg, M. (1992). Functional imaging and localization of electromagnetic brain activity. Brain Topography, 5, 103–111. Retrieved from
Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (1991). Dipole models of eye movements and blinks. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 79(1), 36–44. Retrieved from
Scherg, M., & Berg, P. (1991). Use of prior knowledge in brain electromagnetic source analysis. Brain Topography, 4, 143–150. Retrieved from
Scherg, M. (1984). Spatio-temporal modelling of early auditory evoked potentials. Revue de Laryngologie Otologie Rhinologie, 105(2), 163–170.
Scherg, M. (1982). Distortion of the middle latency auditory response produced by analog filtering. Scandinavian Audiology, 11, 57–60. Retrieved from