BESA Methods


Methods used in BESA

Key papers for cortical LORETA (BESA Research)
Iordanov, T., Bornfleth, H., Wolters, C. H., & ... (2018). LORETA with cortical constraint: Choosing an adequate surface Laplacian operator. Frontiers in …. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2018.00746/abstract
Richards, J. E., Sanchez, C., Phillips-Meek, M., & Xie, W. (2016). A database of age-appropriate average MRI templates. NeuroImage, 124(Pt B), 1254–1259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.04.055
Skrandies, W. (1995). Source localization: Continuing Discussion of the Inverse Problem. ISBET Newsl., 6.
Pascual-Marqui, R. D., Michel, C. M., & Lehmann, D. (1994). Low resolution electromagnetic tomography: a new method for localizing electrical activity in the brain. Int. J. Psychophysiol. Off. J. Int. Organ. Psychophysiol, 18, 49–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8760(84)90014-X


Key papers for age-appropriate template head models (BESA Research)

Richards, J. E., Sanchez, C., Phillips-Meek, M., & Xie, W. (2016). A database of age-appropriate average MRI templates. NeuroImage, 124(Pt B), 1254–1259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.04.055
Richards, J. E., & Xie, W. (2015). Brains for all the ages: Structural neurodevelopment in infants and children from a life-span perspective. In J. Bensen (Ed.), Advances in Child Development and Behavior (pp. 1–52). Vol 48. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.acdb.2014.11.001


Key papers for statistical analysis (BESA Statistics)

Maris, E. (2012). Statistical testing in electrophysiological studies. Psychophysiology, 49(4), 549–565. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2011.01320.x
Maris, E., & Oostenveld, R. (2007). Nonparametric statistical testing of EEG- and MEG-data. J Neurosci Methods, 164(1), 177–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2007.03.024


Key papers for multiple source analysis

Scherg, M., Bast, T., & Berg, P. (1999). Multiple source analysis of interictal spikes: goals, requirements, clinical value. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 16, 214–224. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004691-199905000-00003
Scherg, M., & Berg, P. (1996). New concepts of brain source imaging and localization. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology - Supplement, 46, 127–137.
Scherg, M., & JS, E. (1993). Models of brain sources. Brain Topography, 5, 419–423. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01128700
Scherg, M., & TW, P. (1991). Separation and identification of event-related potential components by brain electric source analysis. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology ¬ Supplement, 42, 24–37.
Scherg, M. (1990). Fundamentals of dipole source potential analysis. In M. H. F. Grandori & G. L. Romani (Eds.), Auditory evoked magnetic fields and electric potentials (eds (pp. 40–69). Advances in Audiology.
Hämäläinen, M. (1987). Interpretation of neuromagnetic measurements : modeling and statistical considerations. Helsinki University of Technology. https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi:443/handle/123456789/15346
Scherg, M., & Von Cramon, D. (1986). Evoked dipole source potentials of the human auditory cortex. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 65, 344–360. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-5597(86)90014-6
Scherg, M., & Von Cramon, D. (1985). Two bilateral sources of the late AEP as identified by a spatio-temporal dipole model. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 62, 32–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-5597(85)90033-4


Key papers on digital EEG review

Scherg, M., Bast, T., Hoechstetter, K., Ille, N., Weckesser, D., Bornfleth, H., & Berg, P. (2004). Brain source montages improve the non-invasive diagnosis in epilepsy. International Congress Series, 1270C, 15–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ics.2004.04.035
Scherg, M., Ille, N., Bornfleth, H., & Berg, P. (2002). Advanced tools for digital EEG review: virtual source montages, whole-head mapping, correlation, phase analysis. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 19, 91–112. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004691-200203000-00001
Assaf, B. A., & JS, E. (1999). Visual and quantitative ictal EEG predictors of outcome after temporal lobectomy. Epilepsia, 40, 52–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.1999.tb01988.x
Assaf, B. A., & JS, E. (1997). Continuous source imaging of scalp ictal rhythms in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia, 38, 1114–1123. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.1997.tb01201.x
Scherg, M., & JS, E. (1994). Brain source imaging of focal and multifocal epileptiform EEG activity. Neurophysiologie Clinique, 24, 51–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0987-7053(05)80405-8


Key paper on BESA source coherence / time-frequency analysis

Hoechstetter, K., Bornfleth, H., Weckesser, D., Ille, N., Berg, P., & M, S. (2004). Besa source coherence: A new method to study cortical oscillatory coupling. Brain Topography, 16, 233–238. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BRAT.0000032857.55223.5d


Key papers on EEG artifact correction

Litvak, V., Komssi, S., Scherg, M., Hoechstetter, K., Classen, J., Zaaroor, M., Pratt, H., & S, K. (2007). Artifact correction and source analysis of early electroencephalographic responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex. NeuroImage, 37, 56–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.05.015
Ille, N., Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (2002). Artifact correction of the ongoing EEG using spatial filters based on artifact and brain signal topographies. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 19, 113–124. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004691-200203000-00002
Picton, T. W., van Roon, P., Armilio, M. L., Berg, P., Ille, N., & Scherg, M. (2000). The correction of ocular artifacts: a topographic perspective. Clinical Neurophysiology, 111, 53–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1388-2457(99)00227-8
Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (1994). A multiple source approach to the correction of eye artifacts. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 90, 229–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(94)90094-9
Lins, O. G., Picton, T. W., Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (1993). Ocular artifacts in recording EEGs and event-related potentials II: Source dipoles and source components. Brain Topography, 6, 65–78. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01234128

Key papers on combined neuroimaging (EEG, MEG, fMRI, PET)
Strobel, A., Debener, S., Sorger, B., Peters, J. C., Kranczioch, C., Hoechstetter, K., Engel, A. K., Brocke, B., & R, R. (2008). Novelty and target processing during an auditory novelty oddball: A simultaneous event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging study. NeuroImage, 40, 869–883. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.10.065
Boor, R., Jacobs, J., Hinzmann, A., Bauermann, T., Scherg, M., Boor, S., Vucurevic, G., Pfleiderer, C., Kutschke, G., & Stoeter, P. (2007). Combined spike-related functional MRI and multiple source analysis in the non-invasive spike localization of benign rolandic epilepsy. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118, 901–909. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2006.11.272
Bledowski, C., Cohen Kadosh, K., Wibral, M., Rahm, B., Bittner, R. A., Hoechstetter, K., Scherg, M., Maurer, K., Goebel, R., & DEJ, L. (2006). Mental Chronometry of Working Memory Retrieval: A Combined Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Event-Related Potentials Approach. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 821–829. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3542-05.2006
Vanni, S., Warnking, J., Dojat, M., Delon-Martin, C., Bullier, J., & Segebarth, C. (2004). Sequence of pattern onset responses in the human visual areas: an fMRI constrained VEP source analysis. NeuroImage, 21, 801–817. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.10.047
Bledowski, C., Prvulovic, D., Hoechstetter, K., Scherg, M., Wibral, R., M. ,. Goebel, & DEJ, L. (2004). Localizing P300 Generators in Visual Target and Distractor Processing: A Combined Event-Related Potential and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Journal of Neuroscience, 300, 9353–9360. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1897-04.2004
Del Gratta, C., Della Penna, S., Ferretti, A., Franciotti, R., Pizzella, V., Tartaro, A., Torquati, K., Bonomo, L., Romani, G. L., & PM, R. (2002). Topographic organization of the human primary and secondary somatosensory cortices: comparison of fMRI and MEG findings. Neuroimage, 17, 1373–1383. https://doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2002.1253
Pouthas, V., Garnero, L., Ferrandez, A. M., & B, R. (2000). ERPs and PET analysis of time perception: spatial and temporal brain mapping during visual discrimination tasks. Human Brain Mapping, 10, 49–60. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0193(200006)10:2<49::AID-HBM10>3.0.CO;2-8
Scherg, M., Linden, D. E. J., Muckli, L., Roth, R., Drüen, K., Ille, N., Linek, S., Zanella, F. E., Singer, W., & Goebel, R. (1999). Combining MEG with fMRI in studies of the human visual system. In Advances in Biomagnetism (eds (pp. 129–132). T. Yoshimoto.
Martinez, A., Anllo-Vento, L., Sereno, M. I., Frank, L. R., Buxton, R. B., Dubowitz, D. J., Wong, E. C., Hinrichs, H., Heinze, H. J., & SA, H. (1999). Involvement of striate and extrastriate visual cortical areas in spatial attention. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 364–369. https://doi.org/10.1038/7274


Other papers on methods

Wang, Y., Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (1999). Common spatial subspace decomposition applied to analysis of brain responses under multiple task conditions: a simulation study. Clinical Neurophysiology, 110, 604–614. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1388-2457(98)00056-X
Scherg, M. (1994). From EEG source localization to source imaging. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum., 152, 29–30. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.1994.tb05180.x
Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (1994). A fast method for forward computation of multiple-shell spherical head models. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 90(1), 58–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(94)90113-9
Miltner, W., Braun, C., Jr, J. R., Simpson, G. V., & DS, R. (1994). A test of brain electrical source analysis (BESA): a simulation study. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 91, 295–310. https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(94)90193-7
Scherg, M. (1992). Functional imaging and localization of electromagnetic brain activity. Brain Topography, 5, 103–111. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01129037
Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (1991). Dipole models of eye movements and blinks. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 79(1), 36–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(91)90154-V
Scherg, M., & Berg, P. (1991). Use of prior knowledge in brain electromagnetic source analysis. Brain Topography, 4, 143–150. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01132771
Scherg, M. (1984). Spatio-temporal modelling of early auditory evoked potentials. Revue de Laryngologie Otologie Rhinologie, 105(2), 163–170.
Scherg, M. (1982). Distortion of the middle latency auditory response produced by analog filtering. Scandinavian Audiology, 11, 57–60. https://doi.org/10.3109/01050398209076200