BESA Methods

Methods used in BESA

Key papers for cortical LORETA (BESA Research)
Iordanov, T., Bornfleth, H., Wolters, C. H., & ... (2018). LORETA with cortical constraint: Choosing an adequate surface Laplacian operator. Frontiers in ….
Richards, J. E., Sanchez, C., Phillips-Meek, M., & Xie, W. (2016). A database of age-appropriate average MRI templates. NeuroImage, 124(Pt B), 1254–1259.
Skrandies, W. (1995). Source localization: Continuing Discussion of the Inverse Problem. ISBET Newsl., 6.
Pascual-Marqui, R. D., Michel, C. M., & Lehmann, D. (1994). Low resolution electromagnetic tomography: a new method for localizing electrical activity in the brain. Int. J. Psychophysiol. Off. J. Int. Organ. Psychophysiol, 18, 49–65.

Key papers for age-appropriate template head models (BESA Research)

Richards, J. E., Sanchez, C., Phillips-Meek, M., & Xie, W. (2016). A database of age-appropriate average MRI templates. NeuroImage, 124(Pt B), 1254–1259.
Richards, J. E., & Xie, W. (2015). Brains for all the ages: Structural neurodevelopment in infants and children from a life-span perspective. In J. Bensen (Ed.), Advances in Child Development and Behavior (pp. 1–52). Vol 48.

Key papers for statistical analysis (BESA Statistics)

Maris, E. (2012). Statistical testing in electrophysiological studies. Psychophysiology, 49(4), 549–565.
Maris, E., & Oostenveld, R. (2007). Nonparametric statistical testing of EEG- and MEG-data. J Neurosci Methods, 164(1), 177–190.

Key papers for multiple source analysis

Scherg, M., Bast, T., & Berg, P. (1999). Multiple source analysis of interictal spikes: goals, requirements, clinical value. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 16, 214–224.
Scherg, M., & Berg, P. (1996). New concepts of brain source imaging and localization. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology - Supplement, 46, 127–137.
Scherg, M., & JS, E. (1993). Models of brain sources. Brain Topography, 5, 419–423.
Scherg, M., & TW, P. (1991). Separation and identification of event-related potential components by brain electric source analysis. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology ¬ Supplement, 42, 24–37.
Scherg, M. (1990). Fundamentals of dipole source potential analysis. In M. H. F. Grandori & G. L. Romani (Eds.), Auditory evoked magnetic fields and electric potentials (eds (pp. 40–69). Advances in Audiology.
Hämäläinen, M. (1987). Interpretation of neuromagnetic measurements : modeling and statistical considerations. Helsinki University of Technology.
Scherg, M., & Von Cramon, D. (1986). Evoked dipole source potentials of the human auditory cortex. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 65, 344–360.
Scherg, M., & Von Cramon, D. (1985). Two bilateral sources of the late AEP as identified by a spatio-temporal dipole model. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 62, 32–44.

Key papers on digital EEG review

Scherg, M., Bast, T., Hoechstetter, K., Ille, N., Weckesser, D., Bornfleth, H., & Berg, P. (2004). Brain source montages improve the non-invasive diagnosis in epilepsy. International Congress Series, 1270C, 15–19.
Scherg, M., Ille, N., Bornfleth, H., & Berg, P. (2002). Advanced tools for digital EEG review: virtual source montages, whole-head mapping, correlation, phase analysis. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 19, 91–112.
Assaf, B. A., & JS, E. (1999). Visual and quantitative ictal EEG predictors of outcome after temporal lobectomy. Epilepsia, 40, 52–61.
Assaf, B. A., & JS, E. (1997). Continuous source imaging of scalp ictal rhythms in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia, 38, 1114–1123.
Scherg, M., & JS, E. (1994). Brain source imaging of focal and multifocal epileptiform EEG activity. Neurophysiologie Clinique, 24, 51–60.

Key paper on BESA source coherence / time-frequency analysis

Hoechstetter, K., Bornfleth, H., Weckesser, D., Ille, N., Berg, P., & M, S. (2004). Besa source coherence: A new method to study cortical oscillatory coupling. Brain Topography, 16, 233–238.

Key papers on EEG artifact correction

Rusiniak, M., Bornfleth, H., Cho, J. H., Wolak, T., & ... (2022). EEG-fMRI: Ballistocardiogram Artifact Reduction by Surrogate Method for Improved Source Localization. Frontiers in ….
Litvak, V., Komssi, S., Scherg, M., Hoechstetter, K., Classen, J., Zaaroor, M., Pratt, H., & S, K. (2007). Artifact correction and source analysis of early electroencephalographic responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex. NeuroImage, 37, 56–70.
Ille, N., Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (2002). Artifact correction of the ongoing EEG using spatial filters based on artifact and brain signal topographies. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 19, 113–124.
Picton, T. W., van Roon, P., Armilio, M. L., Berg, P., Ille, N., & Scherg, M. (2000). The correction of ocular artifacts: a topographic perspective. Clinical Neurophysiology, 111, 53–65.
Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (1994). A multiple source approach to the correction of eye artifacts. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 90, 229–241.
Lins, O. G., Picton, T. W., Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (1993). Ocular artifacts in recording EEGs and event-related potentials II: Source dipoles and source components. Brain Topography, 6, 65–78.

Key papers on combined neuroimaging (EEG, MEG, fMRI, PET)
Strobel, A., Debener, S., Sorger, B., Peters, J. C., Kranczioch, C., Hoechstetter, K., Engel, A. K., Brocke, B., & R, R. (2008). Novelty and target processing during an auditory novelty oddball: A simultaneous event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging study. NeuroImage, 40, 869–883.
Boor, R., Jacobs, J., Hinzmann, A., Bauermann, T., Scherg, M., Boor, S., Vucurevic, G., Pfleiderer, C., Kutschke, G., & Stoeter, P. (2007). Combined spike-related functional MRI and multiple source analysis in the non-invasive spike localization of benign rolandic epilepsy. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118, 901–909.
Bledowski, C., Cohen Kadosh, K., Wibral, M., Rahm, B., Bittner, R. A., Hoechstetter, K., Scherg, M., Maurer, K., Goebel, R., & DEJ, L. (2006). Mental Chronometry of Working Memory Retrieval: A Combined Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Event-Related Potentials Approach. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 821–829.
Vanni, S., Warnking, J., Dojat, M., Delon-Martin, C., Bullier, J., & Segebarth, C. (2004). Sequence of pattern onset responses in the human visual areas: an fMRI constrained VEP source analysis. NeuroImage, 21, 801–817.
Bledowski, C., Prvulovic, D., Hoechstetter, K., Scherg, M., Wibral, R., M. ,. Goebel, & DEJ, L. (2004). Localizing P300 Generators in Visual Target and Distractor Processing: A Combined Event-Related Potential and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Journal of Neuroscience, 300, 9353–9360.
Del Gratta, C., Della Penna, S., Ferretti, A., Franciotti, R., Pizzella, V., Tartaro, A., Torquati, K., Bonomo, L., Romani, G. L., & PM, R. (2002). Topographic organization of the human primary and secondary somatosensory cortices: comparison of fMRI and MEG findings. Neuroimage, 17, 1373–1383.
Pouthas, V., Garnero, L., Ferrandez, A. M., & B, R. (2000). ERPs and PET analysis of time perception: spatial and temporal brain mapping during visual discrimination tasks. Human Brain Mapping, 10, 49–60.<49::AID-HBM10>3.0.CO;2-8
Scherg, M., Linden, D. E. J., Muckli, L., Roth, R., Drüen, K., Ille, N., Linek, S., Zanella, F. E., Singer, W., & Goebel, R. (1999). Combining MEG with fMRI in studies of the human visual system. In Advances in Biomagnetism (eds (pp. 129–132). T. Yoshimoto.
Martinez, A., Anllo-Vento, L., Sereno, M. I., Frank, L. R., Buxton, R. B., Dubowitz, D. J., Wong, E. C., Hinrichs, H., Heinze, H. J., & SA, H. (1999). Involvement of striate and extrastriate visual cortical areas in spatial attention. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 364–369.

Other papers on methods

Wang, Y., Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (1999). Common spatial subspace decomposition applied to analysis of brain responses under multiple task conditions: a simulation study. Clinical Neurophysiology, 110, 604–614.
Scherg, M. (1994). From EEG source localization to source imaging. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum., 152, 29–30.
Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (1994). A fast method for forward computation of multiple-shell spherical head models. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 90(1), 58–64.
Miltner, W., Braun, C., Jr, J. R., Simpson, G. V., & DS, R. (1994). A test of brain electrical source analysis (BESA): a simulation study. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 91, 295–310.
Scherg, M. (1992). Functional imaging and localization of electromagnetic brain activity. Brain Topography, 5, 103–111.
Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (1991). Dipole models of eye movements and blinks. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 79(1), 36–44.
Scherg, M., & Berg, P. (1991). Use of prior knowledge in brain electromagnetic source analysis. Brain Topography, 4, 143–150.
Scherg, M. (1984). Spatio-temporal modelling of early auditory evoked potentials. Revue de Laryngologie Otologie Rhinologie, 105(2), 163–170.
Scherg, M. (1982). Distortion of the middle latency auditory response produced by analog filtering. Scandinavian Audiology, 11, 57–60.